Systems of Systems


Prerequisite/Recommended prerequisite for participation in the module

Students are recommended to have knowledge of stochastic processes and systems, optimization and machine learning and modelling of systems

Content, progress and pedagogy of the module

Systems of systems refer to the aggregation of a number of dedicated, and potentially distributed, sub-systems into an overall more complex system that provides increased functionality and performance. The sub-systems operate independently but need to be optimized for combined performance by understanding their joint behavior, interoperability and integration issues.

The project module aims to enhance the students’ skills and methodology for defining, abstracting, modeling, and analyzing system of systems, e.g. in the context of embedded systems. The focus is on technology, but the project may have a societal, economical, legal, etc. context. Examples could for instance relate to air and ground transportation, health care, power and industrial systems.

Learning objectives


  • System of systems concept and associated performance measures
  • Architectures for complex systems, such as interconnected and nested systems, decentralized/distributed and networked systems
  • Behavior of cooperative and competitive individual, semiautonomous and autonomous systems
  • The students must know how to formulate own competences related to PBL, incl. digital competences


  • Analyze and model systems of systems using appropriate tools
  • Characterize reliability and performance of complex systems, including the impact from individual system properties and their interoperability/interdependencies
  • Apply (multi-criteria) optimization
  • Can reflect over own use of PBL methods and how these methods can be used in the future projects and work situations


  • Identify and characterize/frame complex engineering problems in a systems of systems context
  • Design of individual systems and their interoperability for optimized performance of (complex) systems of systems

Type of instruction

As described in §17



Name of examSystems of Systems
Type of exam
Oral exam based on a project
Assessment7-point grading scale
Type of gradingExternal examination
Criteria of assessmentThe criteria of assessment are stated in the Examination Policies and Procedures

Facts about the module

Danish titleSystemer af systemer
Module codeESNESK2P1
Module typeProject
Duration1 semester
Language of instructionEnglish
Empty-place SchemeYes
Location of the lectureCampus Aalborg
Responsible for the module


Study BoardStudy Board of Electronics and IT
DepartmentDepartment of Electronic Systems
FacultyTechnical Faculty of IT and Design