Rendering and Animation Techniques


Prerequisite/Recommended prerequisite for participation in the module

Audio-Visual Sketching, Mathematics for Multimedia Applications, Human Senses and Perception, Programming of Complex Software Systems

Content, progress and pedagogy of the module


Rendering is the last major step in the graphical pipeline, giving the final appearance to the models and animation. 3D computer animation combines 3D models of objects and motion based on key-frames, procedural-, or interactive input. This course empowers students to synthesise (design, create and render) image sequences and/or animations, 3D content or related assets, including animation for real-time applications, according to some desired visual expression by using state-of-the-art rendering platforms. 

Learning objectives


Students who complete the module will obtain the following qualifications:

  • Knowledge of basic concepts of radiometry/photometry
  • Understanding of the ray tracing technique
  • Understanding of the differences between local and global illumination
  • Understanding of trade-offs between rendering quality and rendering time
  • Understanding camera matching, illumination matching, and High Dynamic Range environment maps for augmentation/compositing
  • Understanding modelling, rigging, and skinning for animation
  • Understanding kinematic constraints, forward and inverse kinematics needed for character- and procedural animation
  • Understanding of mathematical concepts to compute radiance/luminance levels in scenes with known illumination sources: solid angles and integration over spherical domains
  • Understanding concepts of procedural animation


Students who complete the module will obtain the following qualifications:

  • Ability to apply cinematographic elements to rendered sequences, i.e., working with camera effects (depth-of-field, motion blur, lens flares, etc.) and illumination, in order to achieve a desired visual expression
  • Ability to apply camera matching and image-based illumination for rendering virtual objects into image sequences
  • Ability to prepare 3D models for real-time and rendered animation by the application of rigging and skinning to them
  • Ability to apply various animation techniques to models, primarily those that are utilized in procedural animation, like forward/inverse kinematics, blending of animations, as well as morph target animation, per-vertex animation, shape interpolation, blend shapes
  • Ability to apply state-of-the-art modelling/animation/rendering tools in a production workflow involving export of models, key-framed animations and light maps to real-time rendering 3D platforms in order to utilize procedural and interactive user-controlled animation
  • Ability to apply mathematical knowledge from Mathematics for Multimedia Applications course to understand/program/debug relevant material in this course (spherical coordinates, numerical integration, and mathematics for ray tracing:  vector/matrix calculation, line and plane equations, their intersections, quadratic equation of a circle/sphere, trigonometry in order to calculate distances and angles); and apply knowledge of basic calculus (position, velocity, acceleration of the body) for procedural animation


Students who complete the module will obtain the following qualifications:

Ability to synthesise (design and create) rendered image sequences and/or real-time animations, 3D content or related assets according to some desired visual expression

Type of instruction

Refer to the overview of instruction types listed in the start of chapter 3. The types of instruction for this course are decided in accordance with the current Framework Provisions and directions are decided and given by the Study Board for Media Technology.



Name of examRendering and Animation Techniques
Type of exam
Written or oral exam
In accordance with the current Framework Provisions and directions on examination from the Study Board for Media Technology.

To be eligible to take the exam the students must have fulfilled:
• Handing in of written assignments or the like
• Completion of certain – or all – study activities

The exam is an individual written or oral examination with internal censor. The assessment is per-formed in accordance with the 7-point grading scale.
Permitted aids
With certain aids, see list below
See semester description
Assessment7-point grading scale
Type of gradingInternal examination
Criteria of assessmentThe criteria for the evaluation are specified in the Framework Provisions.

Facts about the module

Danish titleRendering og animation
Module codeMSNMEDB5143
Module typeCourse
Duration1 semester
Location of the lectureCampus Aalborg, Campus Copenhagen
Responsible for the module


Study BoardStudy Board of Media Technology
FacultyTechnical Faculty of IT and Design
SchoolSchool of Information and Communication Technology